Rapid diagnostic assays for Pf CRT mutations are already employed as surveillance tools for drug resistance. Here, we review recent field studies that support the central role of Pf CRT mutations in chloroquine resistance. Withdrawal effects of plaquenil Withdrawal from plaquenil Whhat kind of damage does plaquenil cause to the eye Resistance to chloroquine of malaria strains is known to be associated with a parasite protein named PfCRT, the mutated form of which is able to reduce chloroquine accumulation in the digestive vacuole of the pathogen. Whether the protein mediates extrusion. Chloroquine phosphate tablets are indicated for the Treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to susceptible strains of P. falciparum, P.malariae, P. ovale, and P.vivax. Prophylaxis of malaria in geographic areas where resistance to Chloroquine is not present. Treatment of extraintestinal amebiasis. Red Pages Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Recognition of the value of chloroquine was delayed, and it was not brought forward until it was reevaluated in the United States and designated the drug of choice against malaria near the end of World War II . These studies suggest chloroquine resistance arose in ⩾4 distinct geographic foci and substantiate an important role of immunity in the outcomes of resistant infections after chloroquine treatment. Investigation of the resistance mechanisms and of the role of immunity in therapeutic outcomes will support new approaches to drugs that can take the place of chloroquine or augment its efficiency Early in the 20th century, intense demands for an effective quinine substitute launched the discovery and evaluation of a series of organic compounds (beginning with methylene blue), which led to pamaquine and quinacrine after World War I and ultimately produced chloroquine in 1934 [1, 2]. History of chloroquine resistance Drug Resistance in the Malaria-Endemic World, Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses How does plaquenil treat arthritisHydroxychloroquine and back painHydroxychloroquine side effects skin rashWhat drug is similiar to plaquenil Chloroquine DescriptionChloroquine - Clinical PharmacologyIndications and Usage For ChloroquineContraindicationsWarningsPrecautionsAdverse ReactionsOverdosageChloroquine Dosage and AdministrationHow Is Chloroquine SuppliedReferences Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects.. CDC - Malaria - Travelers - Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country. Chloroquine drug Britannica. Causes of resistance 12 3.1 Definition of antimalarial drug resistance 12 3.2 Malaria treatment failure 12 3.3 Mechanisms of antimalarial resistance 12 3.3.1 Chloroquine resistance 12 3.3.2 Antifolate combination drugs 13 3.3.3 Atovaquone 13 3.4 Factors contributing to the spread of resistance 13 3.4.1 Biological influences on resistance 13 Development of Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Drug resistance is the ability of a parasite to survive despite the presence of a drug that is meant to kill it in toxic levels. Resistance developed by most parasites that were initially sensitive to drugs mostly result from mutations in the genes responsive to the drug. Patients in whom chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine have failed to prevent or cure clinical malaria or parasitemia, or patients who acquired malaria in a geographic area where chloroquine resistance is known to occur should be treated with another form of antimalarial therapy see WARNINGS and INDICATIONS AND USAGE, Limitations of Use.