Previously referred to as “Resochin”, Chloroquine was first discovered in 1924 at Bayer laboratories. Its first use was initially ignored as it was found to be toxic to people. Fever from plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine check eyes Antimalarial drug use in Africa. Malaria remains an overwhelming problem in Africa, where about 90% of global malaria morbidity and mortality occur. 1 In most of sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, and the parasite with the greatest likelihood of drug resistance. Chloroquine resistance that first emerged in Southeast Asia in the 1950s eventually reached sub-Saharan Africa in the 1970s. The spread of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in Africa was responsible for a sharp increase in malaria morbidity and mortality 2, 3. From the late 1950s to the 1970s, chloroquine-resistant malaria parasites spread across Asia to Africa, leading to a resurgence of malaria cases and millions of deaths. Chloroquine was replaced by. These trials showed that chloroquine eliminated malaria and was appropriate to be used as an antimalarial drug. Thus, it was not until World War II that the government of the United States sponsored the clinical trials of chloroquine as an antimalarial drug. Chloroquine-resistant malaria is now widespread in africa Malaria Travel & Health Guide, 2019 Online Book, The return of chloroquine-susceptible. - Malaria Journal Plaquenil cause low blood pressureHydroxychloroquine would it help to drink a lot of waterPlaquenil rash on hands Drug resistance in Africa versus Asia. While chloroquine-resistant malaria was rapidly outcompeted after the removal of chloroquine as the first-line treatment in Malawi, a similar return of chloroquine-susceptible infections has not been observed in Asia. The uniqueness of this phenomenon in Africa, but not in Asia, is likely multi-factorial. Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa key lessons for.. Drug-resistant malaria reaches Southeast Asia borders, could spread to.. Yellow Fever Vaccine & Malaria Prophylaxis Information, by.. Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax malaria was first identified in 1989 among Australians living in or traveling to Papua New Guinea. P. vivax resistance to chloroquine has also now been identified in Southeast Asia, Ethiopia, and Madagascar. Isolated reports have suggested chloroquine-resistance P. vivax in other countries and regions, but further evaluation is needed. FALCIPARUM malaria resistant to prophylactic and therapeutic doses of chloroquine phosphate is widespread in Southeast Asia, especially in Vietnam, and occurs in South America, especially in Colombia and Brazil. This development is truly calamitous, since what was almost an ideal drug is becoming of limited value. For the last decade chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum CRPF has spread explosively in sub-Saharan Africa. In some areas of the continent, CRPF is so intense that chloroquine can hardly be said to have any efficacy.